Ethiopia’s Drought – Challenges and Responses (Part 2)

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While it is perhaps inevitable that the severity of the current drought has led to comparisons with 1984, we must remind ourselves that today’s Ethiopia is not the same as 1984’s Ethiopia.  Tremendous progress has been made with support from the international community, both in terms of overall development and in the ability of the Government of Ethiopia (GOE) to reduce and manage risk, build resilience and facilitate inclusive growth in areas of the country subject to recurrent crises. The GOE has been proactive in addressing the needs of the current drought, shifting resources between projects to purchase additional food on the international market and providing assistance to the most affected. Nevertheless, Ethiopia is still one of the world’s poorest countries. According to a recent World Bank (2015) poverty assessment, “37 million Ethiopians remain either poor or vulnerable to falling into poverty in the wake of a shock.” Their needs are so great that they exceed beyond the ability of the GoE to respond and international donors are mobilizing to fill the gap.

The current drought is exceeding the resilience capacities of many households in the worst affected areas, threatening the resilience and development gains we’ve supported.  However, it is equally clear that these gains have made a real difference and that we must stay the course.  Indeed, the current drought and the likelihood of increasingly frequent and severe weather events make the need to do so more compelling and clear.

Building Household Resistance

Since the 2011-2012 drought crisis, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) has increased its investments in resilience in the pastoral lowlands while also bolstering agricultural support activities in the highlands. Livestock sales have increased in pastoralist areas where USAID is working from $6.2m in 2012 to $43.1m in 2015.  This increase, attributable in part to the $15.5m in private sector investment in the sector that the United States Government and its partners helped to facilitate, has helped many pastoralist households to build up savings, thus giving them the means to weather shocks like the current drought.

Through the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) Food for Progress Program, USDA and ACDI/VOCA are working together on the Feed for Enhancement for Ethiopian Development project (FEED) to support the development of Ethiopia’s livestock feed sector. The program is helping Ethiopian agricultural cooperatives build their capacity to produce their own feed. The GOE recently contracted with seven FEED project cooperatives to supply nearly 5,000 metric tons of feed to the drought affected areas. Coming from within Ethiopia, this feed can get to affected areas much quicker than imported feed.

U.S. support to the GOE’s Productive Safety Net Programme (PSNP) is also paying dividends. PSNP is helping to support millions of chronically food insecure families by assisting them to reduce the amount of time without sufficient food and increase household asset accumulation. Additionally, U.S. assistance has helped tens of thousands of households enrolled in the PSNP to achieve self-sufficiency and ‘graduate’ from the program.

በኢትዮጵያ ለተከሰተው ድርቅ እየተሰጠ ያለው ምላሽተግዳሮቶችና መልካም አጋጣሚዎች (ክፍል 2)

ምንም እንኳን ዘንድሮ የተከሰተው ድርቅ የከፋ ከመሆኑ የተነሳ በሀገሪቱ ታሪክ በ1977 ዓ.ም. ከተከሰተው ጋር ማነፃፀሩ አይቀሬ ቢሆንም፤የዛሬይቱ ኢትዮጵያ ከ1977ቱ ጋር አንድ አለመሆኗን ልብ ልንለው የሚገባ ጉዳይ ነው፡፡ በተደጋጋሚ ለችግሩ ተጋላጭ በሆኑ አካባቢዎች ሁሉን አቀፍ የሆነ ዕድገት በማረጋገጥ፣አደጋን የመቀነስና የመቋቋም አቅምን በመገንባት የኢትዮጵያ መንግሥት በርካታ ሥራዎችን የሠራ ሲሆን፤ዓለም አቀፉ ማህበረሰብም መጠነሰፊ የሆነ እገዛ በማድረግ ላይ ይገኛል፡፡ መንግሥት በድርቁ ምክንያት የተከሰተውን የምግብ እጥረት ለመቅረፍ አስቀድሞ በመንቀሳቀስና ግብዓቶችን ከተለያዩ ፕሮጀክቶች በማቀናነስ ከዓለም ገበያ እህል ገዝቶ እጅግ ለተጎዱ ወገኖች እንዲደርስ አድርጓል፡፡ ይሁንና ኢትዮጵያ አሁንም በዓለማችን ላይ ካሉ እጅግ ደሃ የሆኑ ሀገራት ተርታ የምትመደብ ናት፡፡ ዓለም ባንክ እ.ኤ.አ. በ2015 ባወጣው ሪፖርቱ እንዳመለከተው፡- “37 ሚሊዮን የሚሆኑ ኢትዮጵያውያን ወይ በድህነት ውስጥ የሚኖሩ ናቸው፤ አልያም ጠንከር ያለ አደጋ ሲገጥማቸው በቀላሉ ወደ ድህነት አዘቅት የሚወርዱ ናቸው፡፡” የተፈጠረው እጥረት ከፍተኛና ከኢትዮጵያ መንግሥት አቅም በላይ በመሆኑ፤ዓለም አቀፍ ለጋሾችያለውን ክፍተት ለመሙላት በመንቀሳቀስ ላይ ይገኛሉ፡፡

የአሁኑ ድርቅ በተጎዱ አካባቢዎች የሚገኙትን አባወራዎች የመቋቋም አቅም በመፈታተን፤እስካሁን ድጋፍ ያደረግንላቸውን የአቅም ግንባታና የልማት ትሩፋቶችን አደጋ ላይ ጥሏል፡፡ ነገር ግን እነዚህ ትሩፋቶች ተጨባጭ ለውጦችን ያመጡ ስለሆኑ፤ በሁኔታዎች ተስፋ ሳንቆርጥ ወደፊት መግፋት ይኖርብናል፡፡ በእርግጥ አሁን ያለው ድርቅ ብቻ ሳይሆን የዚህ ዓይነት አደጋዎች የመከሰት ዕድል በአየር ንብረት ለውጥ የተነሳ ከፍ እያለ መምጣቱ የምናደርጋቸውን ጥረቶች ማጠናከር የውዴታ ግዴታ ያደርገዋል፡፡

የአባወራዎችን አቅም መገንባት

ከ2003-2004 ዓ.ም. ከተከሰተው ድርቅ ጀምሮ የአሜሪካ ዓለም አቀፍ ልማት ኤጀንሲ(USAID) በቆላማ አካባቢዎች የሚገኙ አርብቶ አደሮችን አቅም የመገንባት፤ በደጋማው የሀገሪቱ ክፍል ለሚገኙትም ድጋፍ የመስጠት ሥራ ሲሠራ ቆይቷል፡፡ ኤጀንሲው እነዚህን ሥራዎች በሚሠራባቸው የአርብቶ አደር አካባቢዎች የእንስሳት ዋጋ ጨምሮ አጠቃላይ ሽያጭ በ2004 ዓ.ም. 6.2. ሚሊዮን ዶላር ከነበረበት በ2008 ዓ.ም. ወደ 43 ሚሊዮን ዶላር ከፍ ሊል ችሏል፡፡ ይህ የሽያጭ ዕድገት ሊመጣ የቻለው ኤጀንሲው የአሜሪካ መንግሥትና አጋሮቹ ባመቻቹት የግሉ ዘርፍ ኢንቨስትመንት በአርብቶ አደር አካባቢ ያሉ አባወራዎች የቁጠባ አቅም በማጠናከር እንደ ዘንድሮው ድርቅ ያሉ የአየር ንብረት ክስተቶችን እንዲቋቋሙ ስላስቻላቸው ነው፡፡

በአሜሪካ መንግሥት የግብርና ሚኒስቴር የምግብ ለዕድገት መርሀ ግብር እና ACDI/VOCA የኢትዮጵያን የእንስሳት መኖ ዘርፍ ለማልማት ለኢትዮጵያ ልማት መኖ ማበልፀግ በተሰኘ ፕሮጀክት ላይ በጋራ በመሥራት ላይ ይገኛሉ፡፡ መርሀ ግብሩ የኢትዮጵያ የግብርና ኅብረት ሥራ ማኅበራትን አቅም በመገንባት የራሳቸውን መኖ ማመረት የሚችሉበትን ሁኔታ ያመቻቻል፡፡ የኢትዮጵያ መንግሥት በቅርቡ ከነዚህ ሰባቱ የኅብረት ሥራ ማኅበራት በድርቅ ለተጎዱ አካባቢዎች 5,000 ሜትሪክ ቶን የእንስሳት መኖ እንዲያቀርቡ ውል ፈጽሟል፡፡ ይህ መኖ ሀገር በቀል በመሆኑ፤ ከውጭ ከሚገባው ይልቅ ለነዚህ አካባቢዎች በፍጥነት ሊደርስ ይችላል፡፡

ከዚህም በተጨማሪ በአሜሪካ መንግሥት የሚደገፈው የኢትዮጵያ መንግሥት የሴፊቲ ኔት መርሀ ግብር ከፍተኛ እገዛ በማድረግ ላይ ይገኛል፡፡ መርሀ ግብሩ በጣም ከፍተኛ የምግብ እጥረት ያለባቸው በሚሊየኖች የሚቆጠሩ ቤተሰቦችን የሚደግፍ ሲሆን፤እነዚህ ቤተሰቦች ያለ በቂ ምግብ የሚቆዩበትን ጊዜ በመቀነስና ንብረት ማፍራት እንዲችሉ በማገዝ ላይ ያተኩራል፡፡ በተጨማሪም የአሜሪካ መንግሥት በዚሁ መርሀ ግብር በኩል በሚሰጠው ድጋፍ በአሥር ሺዎች የሚቆጠሩ አባወራዎች ራሳቸውን ችለው ከመርሀ ግበሩ እንዲሰናበቱ ተደርጓል፡፡

3 thoughts on “Ethiopia’s Drought – Challenges and Responses (Part 2)

  1. I would like to add two things: (1) Local supporters such as Rift Valley University are good examples to mobilize citizens towards doing their share. Rift Valley University has donated over 4,000 quintals of wheat and maize to citizens affected by drought (2) The United States’ investment in building a stronger Ethiopia began in 1952. Look at this excerpt from my book titled: The Secret to Finishing Well : Quest for Authentic Leadership:

    In 1950, the emperor invited Mr. Henry G. Bennet, who was then president of Oklahoma Agricultural and Mechanical College (presently Oklahoma State University) to discuss with him the possibility of establishing an agricultural college in Ethiopia. That connection resulted in securing the support of the United States towards establishing an agricultural college under the Point Four program. On June 16, 1954, the United States signed a technical-assistance agreement with Ethiopia through which Alemaya Agricultural College (presently Alemaya University), which was modeled under the American land-grant system, was established. Dr. Clyde R. Kindell of the United States played a remarkable role in giving Alemaya University a good start and laying a sustainable foundation. Dr. Kindell also served at Haile Selassie I University (presently Addis Ababa University) in Ethiopia for eight years, as the director of instruction and research at the Jimma Agricultural Technical School for two years, and as the president of Alemaya College of Agriculture and Mechanical Arts from 1961 to 1966. (Page 59 – 60)

    I am aware that the United States still maintains the long ties that it established with Ethiopia in 1952, but those should be at least equal to that of the latecomer China. As I mentioned in chapter 3, the United States, through its Point Four program in the 1950s, established the Alemaya Agricultural College (currently university); the Jimma Technical High School, the first of its kind Agricultural Extension Services; and the Debre Zeit Research Center, thereby establishing a strong foundation on which to sustain the country’s progress. But why didn’t American agricultural companies take advantage of the US government’s longstanding contributions and invest in Ethiopian agriculture? Who else would do it better? I assure you that Ethiopians have great love for Americans and welcome them because of the bond established through the long-time ties. In my opinion, since investment in sectors like telecommunications, banking, and logistics are not open to foreign investors, the agricultural sector would be the best option for American investment. (Page 238 – 240)

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  2. Reblogged this on agituwodajoblog and commented:
    I would like to add two things: (1) Local supporters such as Rift Valley University are good examples to mobilize citizens towards doing their share. Rift Valley University has donated over 4,000 quintals of wheat and maize to citizens affected by drought (2) The United States’ investment in building a stronger Ethiopia began in 1952. Look at this excerpt from my book titled: The Secret to Finishing Well : Quest for Authentic Leadership:

    In 1950, the emperor invited Mr. Henry G. Bennet, who was then president of Oklahoma Agricultural and Mechanical College (presently Oklahoma State University) to discuss with him the possibility of establishing an agricultural college in Ethiopia. That connection resulted in securing the support of the United States towards establishing an agricultural college under the Point Four program. On June 16, 1954, the United States signed a technical-assistance agreement with Ethiopia through which Alemaya Agricultural College (presently Alemaya University), which was modeled under the American land-grant system, was established. Dr. Clyde R. Kindell of the United States played a remarkable role in giving Alemaya University a good start and laying a sustainable foundation. Dr. Kindell also served at Haile Selassie I University (presently Addis Ababa University) in Ethiopia for eight years, as the director of instruction and research at the Jimma Agricultural Technical School for two years, and as the president of Alemaya College of Agriculture and Mechanical Arts from 1961 to 1966. (Page 59 – 60)

    I am aware that the United States still maintains the long ties that it established with Ethiopia in 1952, but those should be at least equal to that of the latecomer China. As I mentioned in chapter 3, the United States, through its Point Four program in the 1950s, established the Alemaya Agricultural College (currently university); the Jimma Technical High School, the first of its kind Agricultural Extension Services; and the Debre Zeit Research Center, thereby establishing a strong foundation on which to sustain the country’s progress. But why didn’t American agricultural companies take advantage of the US government’s longstanding contributions and invest in Ethiopian agriculture? Who else would do it better? I assure you that Ethiopians have great love for Americans and welcome them because of the bond established through the long-time ties. In my opinion, since investment in sectors like telecommunications, banking, and logistics are not open to foreign investors, the agricultural sector would be the best option for American investment. (Page 238 – 240)

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  3. የኤሜሪካ መንግስት ለኢትዮጵያ ያለውን ርዳታና ቀና አመለካከት ሁል ጊዜም አደንቃለሁ። ሴፍት ኔት ፕሮግራም ለኢትዮጵያ በጣም ጠቃሚ ነው፣ የኣሜሪካ የታሪፍ ፖሊሲ ለድሃ ኣገሮች ትልቅ ርዳታ ነው። አሁን እኛ የገጠመን ነገር ዘረኛና ተንኮለኛ እንዲሁም ድብቅ እንዲሁም ኣደገኛና ለዴሞክራሲ ግድ የሌለው መንግስት ነው። ይህ ችግር ከባድ ችግር ነውና ለውጥ ያስፈልገናል። ኢትዮጵያ በዚህ ስርዓት ልትቀጥል ኣትችለም። ይህ ስርዓት አብቅቶለታል። ስለዚህ እሜሪካ በኣእንድ በኩል የተራቡትን ለመርዳት የምታደርገውን ጥረት እያደረገችልን በሌላ በኩል ግን ይህን ስርዓት ለውጦ በተሻለ ስርዓት ለመገንባት በሚደረገው ጥረት ዙሪያ አሜሪካ ታግዛቸው ዘንድ ኢትዮጵያውያን ያለ ልክ ፈልገዋል። ትልቅ ችግር ነው የገጠመን። ይሄ ሁሉ እርዳታ እየተደረገ ስደት በታሪካችን እንዲህ ኣይተን ኣናውቅም። ወጣቱ ስነ ልቡናው ተጎድቷል። በኣለማቀፉ ጥረት የተሰሩ ልማቶች ኣይካዱም። የወያኔ ስራ ተብለው ኣይወሰዱም። በመንግስት ውስጥ ህዝብና የፓርቲው ያልሆኑ ሰዎች ሁሉ ራሳቸውን ለመለወጥ፣ ኣገራቸውን ለመርዳት እየሰሩ ነው። እርዳታ እየጎረፈ ነው። ዋናው ጉዳይ እድገቱ ያልተመጣጠነ በመሆኑ ኦሮሞዎችን ኣስቆጣ፣ ኣማሮችን ኣስቆጣ። ድሮ ጊዜ ረሃብ በረጅም ዘመን ኣንድ ጊዜ ተከስቶ ነበር። ከዚያ ውጭ በየ ዓመቱ ሰው ርሃብ ላይ ኣይወድቅም ነበር። ጥጋብ ነበር። የኣሁኑ ዘመን ችግር ከህዝብ ብዛቱም ጋር ተያይዞ ረሃብ በጣም ፐርሲስታንት ችግር ሆኖ ይታያል። ከዚህም በላይ ደግሞ መንግስት ወደ ዴሞክራሲ ከመለወጥ ይልቅ ወደ ፍጹም ዲክተተርነት ሲያድግ ይታያል። በጣም ድብቅ ከመሆኑ የተነሳ ህዝብ ይፈራል፣ ይጠረጥረዋል። ስለዚህ ለውጥ ኢትዮጵያውያን ፈልገዋል።

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